Posts (50)

Mon, Jan 7 8:00am · What do Yellowstone rocks teach us about kidney stones?

Mayo Clinic researchers are turning to Yellowstone National Park to unlock the secrets of kidney stones. Medical science long has been mystified by a cause and cure for this painful condition that affects more than 1 in 10 Americans. Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine and NASA Astrobiology Institute research finds kidney stones grow in dynamic ways that are similar to those observed in Mammoth Hot Springs rock formations at Yellowstone.

Nicholas Chia, Ph.D.

“For decades, we thought that kidney stones formed in a slow, steady, layer-by-layer process like dust settling in your house. However, new high-resolution cross sections of these stones indicate they repeatedly grow and dissolve on their way to becoming a fully formed stone. There are periods of rapid growth, large missing gaps and dissolution — it’s a back-and-forth process. This suggests that stones grow over time in a more complicated way than we previously knew, and that there may be new ways to prevent them,” says Nicholas Chia, Ph.D., co-director of the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine Microbiome program. “We are very excited because we see the same types of patterns in kidney stones, Yellowstone rocks and many other environments on Earth.”

The kidney stone studies bring together geobiologists, microbiologists and nephrologists to prove their theory. The smoking gun, Dr. Chia says, would be a discovery that microbes — common bacteria — are driving kidney stone formation in the same way they do in Yellowstone hot spring deposits.

Kidney stone cross section

“We believe stone formation is microbially driven in the human body as well. We are trying to extract and genetically sequence the microbes and proteins that are present to figure out where they are in the stone and what processes they are responsible for,” says Dr. Chia. “We hope to answer this in future studies.”

Kidney stones are hard rocklike masses of mineral and acid salts often smaller than the head of a nail that lodge in the kidney and don’t dissolve. The only way to get rid of them is through painful urine passage or surgery.

The team is now working to understand how proteins and other biomolecules derived from both the kidney and the microbiome — the community of bacteria in your body — could lead to an eventual treatment. That’s especially important for people who follow medical advice and yet repeatedly suffer from kidney stones.

Yellowstone cross section

“If we understood the process of repeated crystallization and dissolution within kidney stones, we might be able to prescribe something that either dramatically slows the stone growth or significantly increases the disintegration. If we understood the diversity of microbes involved and their metabolic activity, we might be able to change the rates at which stones growth and dissolve, just as has been proven by research in Yellowstone hot springs. There are many options once we understand this process,” adds Dr. Chia.

Dr. Chia’s team has been working on these studies for approximately five years. He believes it will take a few more years of team science research to fully understand the combined role of the microbiome, renal (kidney) physiology and urine chemistry in growing and dissolving kidney stones.

Up to a half-million people a year visit the emergency room to seek relief from this condition, according to The National Kidney Foundation. Kidney stones are often associated with other disorders such as high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity.

Dr. Chia is the Bernard and Edith Waterman co-director of the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine Microbiome Program.

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Thu, Jan 3 11:50am · Mayo Clinic discovers biological markers that could guide treatment for prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in American men, other than skin cancer.*  Statistics from the American Cancer Society  show approximately 1 in 9 American men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer at some time in their lives.  Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine-sponsored research released today may help families facing difficult treatment decisions.

Genetic alterations in low-risk prostate cancer diagnosed by needle biopsy can identify men that harbor higher-risk cancer in their prostate glands, Mayo Clinic has discovered. The research, which is published in the January edition of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, found for the first time that genetic alterations associated with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer also may be present in some cases of low-risk prostate cancers.

The study found the needle biopsy procedure may miss higher-risk cancer that increases the risk of disease progression. Researchers say that men diagnosed with low-risk cancer may benefit from additional testing for these chromosomal alterations.

George Vasmatzis, Ph.D.

“We have discovered new molecular markers that can help guide men in their decisions about the course of their prostate cancer care,” says George Vasmatzis, Ph.D., co-director of the Center for Individualized Medicine Biomarker Discovery Program and lead author on the study. “Overtreatment has been issue for the group of men that our study targets. We found that the presence of genetic alterations in low-risk cancer can help men decide whether treatment or active surveillance is right for them.”

Prostate cancer is assessed by Gleason patterns and score that indicate grade. The Gleason patterns are strongly associated with risk of disease progression. Gleason pattern 3 prostate cancer is considered to be low-risk. Gleason patterns 4 and 5 cancer carry a higher risk of aggressive behavior.

Men whose tumor is composed entirely of Gleason pattern 3 may choose active surveillance. They are monitored closely with blood tests and needle biopsies, as necessary. Or they may be referred to treatment, such as surgery and radiation, particularly if they have Gleason pattern 4 or 5.

Men with a low-risk cancer sometimes choose surgery because they don’t want to risk disease progression. The study found that men who do not have these alterations in their cancers have a low risk of harboring aggressive disease. These men may feel more comfortable choosing active surveillance. Alternatively, if a man’s low-risk tumor shows these alterations, they have a higher risk that their cancer may progress. They may consider treatment, including surgery.

The research

Researchers performed DNA sequencing with a high-tech genomic tool known as mate-pair sequencing. This research was performed on specific Gleason patterns from frozen cancer specimens from 126 men who had their prostate glands removed. They found five genes are more frequently altered in Gleason patterns 4 and 5. These alterations were found more commonly in Gleason pattern 3 associated with higher Gleason patterns and not when Gleason pattern 3 was found alone.

John Cheville, M.D.

“The needle biopsy procedure samples only a small portion of the tumor. It is not uncommon that a man with a Gleason pattern 3 on needle biopsy specimen harbors a higher-grade cancer next to the pattern 3 that was missed by the procedure,” says John Cheville, M.D., co-director of the Center for Individualized Medicine Biomarker Discovery Program and co-author of the study. “Therefore, if we identify these alterations in a Gleason pattern 3, there is a higher likelihood that Gleason pattern 4 is nearby.”

Researchers took the genetic information generated using mate pair sequencing and converted it into a test called “fluorescence in situ hybridization” (FISH) that validated the genetic alterations in clinical samples. The FISH test is available for Mayo patients.


*Taken from American Cancer Society Key Statistics about Prostate Cancer


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Wed, Jan 2 9:14am · Probiotics: one size does not fit all

Thank you for taking the time to comment. This article neither promotes nor discourages the eating of yogurt. The key message here is that the benefit of probiotics for specific disease states is still under investigation and there are currently no FDA approved probiotics to treat disease. Further, there is little known about the long term effects of probiotics. Dr. Kashyap recommends consulting your personal medical provider before taking probiotics for health reasons. With regards to yogurt, it is a food group that naturally has bacteria in addition to other nutrients and may have health benefits but is not meant to treat a disease.

Dec 17, 2018 · Probiotics: one size does not fit all

The allure of probiotics can be hard to resist. Popular belief holds that when you take probiotics in a pill, powder or food, you boost your gut health with a powerful antidote to digestive diseases.

But what exactly are probiotics, and how do you separate truth from theory? What does the research say?

Purna Kashyap, M.B.B.S., a gastroenterologist and Bernard and Edith Waterman co-director of the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine Microbiome program and a member of the scientific advisory board of American Gastroenterological Association (AGA)Gut Microbiome Center for Education and Research, explains what science reveals about probiotics.

Purna Kashyap, M.B.B.S.

“Probiotics are living microscopic organisms, most commonly bacteria or yeast. Probiotics are thought to improve overall health and have been tested in multiple disease states, but the majority of the studies are not on par with rigorous clinical trials done for drugs. As a result their effectiveness remains highly controversial, and it is unclear how they act,” says Dr. Kashyap.

In addition, probiotics are naturally present in many forms of fermented foods such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, kimchi, miso and kombucha.

Commonly held beliefs about probiotics

1. Probiotics will work the same in everyone
Truth: all probiotics are not created equal, so may affect each individual and each health condition differently.

Dr. Kashyap points to recent studies in human and mice on how probiotics affect the gut. The first examined how they colonize the gut – in other words how they contribute to the good bacteria that supports good health. The second explored whether probiotics restore the gut bacteria after the use of antibiotics.

“What the studies found was quite surprising. They found that people may respond differently to the same probiotic based on their diet, genetics, microbiome, environment, and lifestyle and hence one size doesn’t fit all. Further, they found that probiotics may delay the recovery of gut bacteria following antibiotic use. While they did not measure clinical effects and only studied one probiotic made of 11 different bacteria, the findings did advance our understanding of probiotics,” adds Dr. Kashyap.

A goal of the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine is to transform medical practice by taking an individualized approach that matches medical products and services to each person’s unique genetic profile.

2. Probiotics are safe

Truth: the majority of scientific studies on probiotics do not report harm, but that does not guarantee they are safe.

“The fact that no one is reporting harm is being construed that probiotics are safe. It is not the same thing. It just means the majority of studies have not done a harm’s assessment, so we can’t say with certainty that they are safe or harmful, but they are generally considered to be safe. Further we don’t know the long term implications of probiotics, either,” Dr. Kashyap says.

“Individuals who have a chronic disease, are immunocompromised, or are elderly, should seek guidance from a medical provider on whether probiotics may be appropriate. In general, probiotics should not be taken without guidance from a medical provider.”

3. The benefit of probiotics can be measured by the combined findings from several small studies

Two large recent trials in nearly 1800 children found that commercial probiotic strains previously thought to benefit children with acute gastroenteritis were, in fact, not effective.

“Together these studies highlight the need for high quality clinical trials before we promote the use of specific probiotics in specific diseases,” says Dr. Kashyap.

“The biggest concern (about misinformation) is that people may be spending hundreds of dollars, because they have been led to believe that taking these probiotics will keep them heathy when in reality they may not make a difference, and we don’t know the long term consequences.”

What science has yet to prove about probiotics

All probiotics are not created equal, and their effects on a person’s health cannot be generalized.

“We believe probiotics may have an effect, but we don’t know specifically what that is. It is important to note that there is no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved use for probiotics. They are available on the market as food supplements, not as medical therapies,” says Dr. Kashyap. “Each person should discuss with a medical provider data that supports probiotic use.”

Despite lack of conclusive evidence, medical providers may recommend probiotics with the goals of:

  • acting as good bacteria in the gut.
  • providing health benefits such as boosting the immune system.
  • preventing harmful bacteria from growing in the gut.
  • producing useful by-products that improve our metabolism, our mood and the health of our colon.

To learn more ways to sift through fact or speculation, the AGA includes information on its website about probiotics and its position on recent research.


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Nov 26, 2018 · Mayo Clinic discovery advances potential individualized treatment for mesothelioma

Large chromosomal rearrangements present in mesothelioma could make it possible to understand which patients are likely respond to immunotherapy,  researchers at the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine  have discovered. The research is published in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology.

Aaron Mansfield, M.D.

“What we’ve shown so far is that these large complex chromosomal rearrangements are frequent in mesothelioma and may provide a source of neoantigens (cancer proteins) that the immune system can recognize,” says Aaron Mansfield, M.D., a Mayo Clinic oncology researcher and lead author on the paper. “It would be an entirely new way of predicting response.”

This finding is significant in part because the prognosis is often poor for mesothelioma — a rare, aggressive form of cancer  linked to asbestos exposure that forms on tissue lining in the lungs, heart and abdomen. There is no cure, and standard cancer treatment of chemotherapy, radiation and surgery doesn’t work for everyone.

“Mesothelioma does not have many of the mutations that are common in other cancers. Instead, there were chromosomal rearrangements that may have prognostic and therapeutic implications,” says Dr. Mansfield. “There were many more rearrangements than we expected. We were able to identify complex patterns of rearrangements called chromothripsis and chromoplexy. The extent of these patterns has never before been described in mesothelioma.”

Many types of DNA changes are known to be present in cancer cells. Using advanced genomic technology, a research team at Mayo Clinic was able to zero in on precise genetic variants driving mesothelioma. They used a new technology known as mate-pair sequencing, which looks at chromosomal rearrangements.

George Vasmatzis, Ph.D.

“Mate pair sequencing is an inexpensive way to scan the whole genome of tumor cells for chromosomal abnormalities that could give rise to cancer –causing proteins. By detecting all these abnormal junctions, mate pair sequencing reveals a new biological marker for predicting response to immunotherapy,” says George Vasmatzis, Ph.D., co-director of the Center for Individualized Medicine Biomarker Discovery Program, and final author on the study.

The Mayo Clinic team hopes this early research will lay the foundation for predicting which patients with mesothelioma are most likely benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors. That class of drugs unleashes the power of each individual’s immune system to attack cancer cells.

Additional research is needed to verify the findings.

The study was funded by Leah and Richard Lommen, Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine Biomarker Discovery Program and National Institutes of Health grant NIH K12 CA90628.



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Nov 19, 2018 · Gene therapy: potential and pitfalls

Research is advancing gene therapy as a possible treatment or eventual cure for genetic diseases that bedevil modern science. Gene therapy was conceived over 20 years ago, and until recently, remained largely in the research lab. But gene therapy products are now beginning to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for clinical care. Physician-scientists are intrigued with exploring its possibilities for transforming medical practice.

Gene therapy seeks to target faulty genes that are driving disease and either correct or replace them. Imagine your entire genome as an electric master board that controls physical characteristics and bodily functions. A genomic variant would be the burned out fuse causing disease. Gene therapy would target the defective fuse and either replace it or add a new fuse to get the body functioning correctly.

Mayo’s research

As an example of the potential, David Deyle, M.D., of the Mayo Clinic Department of Clinical Genomics and Center for Individualized Medicine Clinomics Program, is using gene therapy in his research into possible treatments for osteogenesis imperfecta, also known as brittle bone disease. People with this devastating rare genetic disorder suffer with bones that break easily and often. Caused by a defect in the protein known as collagen, brittle bone disease has no cure.

David Deyle, M.D.

“My research has shown that when we conduct gene targeting, we can take cells from patients and correct the gene so the cells produce normal collagen. In brittle bone disease, collagen is abnormal and the bones do not function appropriately. But, if we use this virus to target and correct the gene, we can generate cells that produce normal collagen,” says Dr. Deyle. “It may not change every cell in the body, but it might have the potential to one day improve quality of life for these patients.”

How gene therapy works

Gene therapy is performed two different ways. In one method, a new gene is injected into the body using a virus or another delivery method. The virus acts like a delivery vehicle to introduce the new gene into diseased cells to repair or replace the flawed gene. An example of this might be new treatments that have been developed for hemophilia, a disease from which patients experience easy and frequent bleeding.

“We can use a small DNA virus that incorporates the human DNA sequence inside that virus, and using the cell’s own machinery, it has the potential to not just replace the defective gene but new technology suggests that we can also fix mutations within the cell,” Dr. Deyle says.

In the other method, gene therapy is done outside the body. A gene is added to a specific cell type for example blood or bone marrow and then injected into the bloodstream. The hope is that the cells will divide and replace all defective cells. Treatments for diseases like thalassemia, which affect the blood system, are good targets.

CAR T-cell therapy, which seeks to harness the power of the immune system by genetically modifying cells to attack cancer, is a new form of gene therapy. CAR T, a form of gene therapy currently used in patient care at Mayo Clinic, is offered as treatment for patients with B-cell leukemias and lymphomas.

Saad Kenderian, M.D.

“CAR T-cell therapy is definitely a type of gene therapy. The therapy relies on the insertion of genetic materials into the patient own immune T-cells to make them recognize cancer cells,” says Saad Kenderian, M.D.

Potential of gene therapy

FDA has recently approved gene therapy as a treatment for certain types of genetic eye diseases like retinal dystrophy. Gene therapy has also been mentioned as a possible treatment for genetic liver disease, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia, AIDS and many other conditions.

Possible pitfalls

The human genome is made up of billions of base pairs and approximately 20,000 genes. Finding the exact gene to target and correct can be like looking for a specific grain of sand on the beach. Another challenge is targeting specific cell types that will improve disease.

“How do you target the cell population that you want and not affect the whole body if you don’t want it to? You don’t want proteins turned on in all parts of the body. For example, when targeting muscle proteins, you want proteins in your muscles, not in your blood vessels or skin,” Dr. Deyle says.

While gene therapy is just starting to be introduced in the clinic, research to advance this individualized approach to care is in various stages. Dr. Deyle’s gene therapy research is in early stages. He says there are some hurdles to overcome, and it will take several years before there are gene therapy trials for brittle bone disease.



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Oct 29, 2018 · BEAUTY trial charts an individualized path to breast cancer treatment

Article by Julie Janovsky Mason

Watch Elena’s story here:


Elena Blevins and her grandchildren

Six years ago, Elena Blevins discovered a lump on her right breast as she was getting dressed.

“At first I thought it was cyst,” she says, initially dismissing the lump as she focused on her job and family. After several months, she became increasingly tired. And the lump appeared to get larger and harder.

At the urging of her daughter, Elena, who is a member of the Tohono O’odham Nation, scheduled an appointment with Indian Health Service at Phoenix Indian Medical Center (PIMC). It would be the first of a series of medical appointments that would bring medical experts from Phoenix Indian Medical Center and Mayo Clinic together to coordinate Elena’s care.


A coordinated approach

A mammogram and biopsy at PIMC revealed Elena had triple-negative breast cancer – an aggressive form of the disease that often is challenging to treat.

Donald Northfelt, M.D.

“We recognized immediately that Elena had a serious breast cancer problem that needed immediate attention,”  Donald Northfelt, M.D., associate medical director of Mayo Clinic’s Breast Clinic, says of Elena’s diagnosis.
“Triple negative is a form of breast cancer in which there is no expression of estrogen receptor, no expression of progesterone receptor and no overexpression of the HER2 [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2] protein,” he explains. “Because none of these proteins are expressed in the cancer, we are lacking specific targets for that type of cancer.”

Elena, a home health aide, was at work when she learned the news.

“I hung up the phone and finished up my shift,” she says. “I don’t know how I was able to maintain it. I had maybe another half hour to go until my shift was over. I didn’t tell my client anything. I told her, ‘I will see you tomorrow.'”

Elena burst into tears once she got into her car.

When she arrived home, she told her daughter first. Then she sat down with her son, who was only 12 at the time. Friends and family started arriving at her home as the news spread. “Everyone was crying,” Elena says. “It was very traumatic.”

The Mayo Clinic and Phoenix Indian Medical Center teams felt Elena would be a good candidate for a clinical trial at Mayo as part of her overall treatment plan.


A Pivotal Clinical Trial

Elena recalls that her care team explained to her that she qualified to be part of a clinical trial and what it would entail. She liked the fact participating in a clinical trial potentially could help other women with this type of cancer.

“I thought if I could help people and the clinical trial could help me, it was a win-win,” she says. So Elena continued her cancer treatment at Mayo Clinic’s Arizona campus and was enrolled into the Breast Cancer Genome Guided Therapy, or BEAUTY, study which was sponsored by the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine.

The BEAUTY trial employed a very sophisticated genetic and molecular analysis to help us understand the nature of Elena’s cancer and make a better plan for her treatment,” says Dr. Northfelt, one of the researchers on the trial.

As part of her treatment protocol, Elena received several months of preoperative chemotherapy, and it shrank her tumor. Then Elena had a lumpectomy at Mayo Clinic, performed by surgeon Richard Gray, M.D., who was also a researcher on the clinical trial. The area of the original tumor was removed and lymph nodes were extracted from her armpit for testing.

“We were grateful at the time of her surgery to find out all the cancer had disappeared from her breast, which was our goal and our hope,” Dr. Northfelt says. Elena then received conventional postoperative whole-breast radiation therapy to complete her care.

Elena has been cancer-free for more than five years. She credits her strong faith and the support of her family and friends for helping her get through. She’s thankful that she had access to the clinical trial and is grateful to her care teams at Mayo Clinic and Phoenix Indian Medical Center.

“It was a true blessing to have people care about me so much,” Elena says of having two care teams. “It was a huge team. It was like a big family.”

October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month, a time to call attention to this type of cancer, which affects 1 in 8 American women. Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine, along with colleagues within the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, are researching new, individualized ways to detect and treat breast cancer early, when it is most curable.


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Oct 23, 2018 · Mayo Clinic research combines genetics and psychiatry to seek biomarkers for precise alcohol abuse therapies

Mayo Clinic research is bringing together knowledge of psychiatry, genetics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and artificial intelligence to seek biological markers associated with alcohol use disorder and treatment response. Finding the molecular drivers of alcohol use disorder commonly known as alcoholism, could help predict who is most likely to develop this disorder and who might respond to medications approved for treatment. It might also reveal insights into new medications when standard drugs don’t work and could guide health care providers to precise treatments.

Victor Karpyak, M.D., Ph.D.

“Alcohol use disorder is one of the most prominent mental health problems in the world, second only to depression in terms of burden of disease,” says Victor Karpyak, M.D., Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic psychiatrist, co-principal investigator and leader of the integrated study team. “Only about 10 percent of those with alcohol use disorder seek therapeutic help. We believe that’s because people don’t expect medications to be efficient and helpful in treatment, which is unfortunate and factually incorrect.”

The Food and Drug Administration has approved three medications for treatment of alcohol use disorder. However, they don’t work for everyone. There are no known biomarkers that reliably predict which patients would be good candidates for these therapies.

“Tragically, there are some people who have biological characteristics which make them more susceptible to  alcoholism. What we’d like to do is better understand the genetic and molecular underpinnings of this susceptibility, so we can understand drug response and take an individualized approach to helping these patients overcome alcohol use disorder,” says Richard Weinshilboum, M.D., one of the researchers involved in this project and co-director of the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine Pharmacogenomics program.

In a team science approach, Mayo Clinic will launch a coordinated study in conjunction with and funded by two National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism grants. The study will focus on the search for genetic markers of response to the drug acamprosate, which has been shown to help alcoholics stay sober.

“For some of our patients, the medicine known as acamprosate is a remarkably effective supplement to the clinical therapy and peer support, helping to curb cravings during and after treatment,” says Marvin D. Seppala, M.D., chief medical officer of the Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation, which is collaborating on the study. “Unfortunately, we have no idea who it will work for and who it won’t, so we just provide it to patients and hope that it helps.”

The five-year study expands previous pharmacogenetic research completed by the Mayo Clinic Department of Psychiatry by scanning the entire genome and metabolome in search for biological markers — clues to disease cause and treatment.

“Knowledge of the biology of alcohol use disorder and response to medication may allow us to zero down on meaningful molecular targets and see how we can intervene with genetic manipulations or new medications to reduce a person’s vulnerability to this disease,” says Dr. Karpyak.

Applying pharmacogenetics for an individualized treatment approach on a large scale

Researchers will follow 800 people receiving care for alcohol use disorder through Mayo Clinic affiliates as well as at the Hazelden Betty Ford Ford Foundation’s residential treatment facility in Center City, Minnesota. Study participants will have genetic testing to identify variants to help predict their response to the use of acamprosate or placebo.

The study will then combine pharmacogenomics — how the body processes and responds to medication — and metabolomics — small molecules known as metabolites that interact in the body — to try to better understand why the drug works for some but not others.

Richard Weinshilboum, M.D.

“We will look at the metabolites in their blood and bring together metabolomics with genomics. We hope that using the drug as a molecular probe will help us determine if there are different genes that might affect how each individual responds to anti-alcohol therapy,” says Dr. Weinshilboum, co-principal investigator of this study. “When we have used this approach before for psychiatric diseases like depression, we identified genes that we had never heard of before that appeared to be related to drug response, and then we used artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques to incorporate that information into a predictive algorithm.”

Researchers hope that if they find new genes linked to alcoholism treatment response, they might be able to identify new therapies compatible with a patient’s genetic fingerprint. That’s important in part because alcohol use disorder is linked to a number of other mental health conditions as well as conditions such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and liver cirrhosis.

This study  reflects many years of collaborative work and support between the Mayo Clinic Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine Pharmacogenomics Program, and the Samuel C. Johnson Genomics of Addiction Program.

Beside Dr. Karpyak and Dr. Weinshilboum, the study team includes:
Joanna Biernacka, Ph.D., co-principal investigator
Doo-Sup Choi, Ph.D., co-principal investigator
Mark Frye, M.D. chair, Mayo Clinic Department of Psychiatry and Psychology

The research team would like to give special recognition to the late David Mrazek, M.D., upon whose pioneering work this study builds.




If you’d like to learn more about pharmacogenomics and its broader applications, Dr. Weinshilboum will be a featured speaker at “Drugs & Genes: Pharmacogenomics for the Modern Health Care Team, Nov. 30 – Dec. 1, 2018 in Arizona. Sponsored by the Center for Individualized Medicine, “Drugs & Genes” will be held at the Scottsdale Marriott in Scottsdale, Arizona.




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